The Gut-Brain Axis (GBA) consists of bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system, and its role is to monitor and integrate emotional and cognitive centers of the brain with peripheral intestinal functions. (enteric - meaning anything of or relating to the intestines)
It is now widely believed that the gut microbiota is critically important for the appropriate development and maintenance of brain function. Moreover, there is accumulating evidence implicating the microbiota in a variety of psychiatric, neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.
Given the role of diet in modulating the microbiota, we may really be focusing on a diet-microbiota-gut-brain axis in
mediating health and disease across the lifespan.
Medical psychologists use techniques of psychotherapy, behavior modification, and cognitive, interpersonal, and family therapy to help patients manage chronic illness, reduce physical symptoms of disease or treatment, and manage emotional aspects of their illness.